maturitní otázky, seminárky a referáty
Angličtina - The Czech Republic
Autor: Kateřina Labaničová
- Area : 74,000,000 sq. km
- Population : 10,000,000 inhabitants
- Capital : Prague (1,400,000)
- Other cities : Brno, Plzeň, Ostrava, Liberec
- Inner parts : Bohemia (Prague), Moravia (Brno), Silesia (Ostrava)
- Borders on : Slovak Republic (SE), Austria (S), Germany (S, W, NW), Poland (N, NE)
- Currency : Czech Crown = 100 hellers
- Languages : Czech, various dialects.
- Mountains : mainly bording ranges - The Ore Mts. (NW-N), The Giant Mts. (NE), Eagle Mts. (NE), Ranges of Jeseníky and Beskydy (NE-E), Western Carpatia (E), Bohemian-Moravian Highland (Middle S), Šumava (S), Bohemian Forest (SW)
- Basins and lowlands : Lowlands are situated around valleys of biggest rivers - Vltava Lowland, Lowland of Elbe, Lw. of Morava, Lowland of Haná
- Rivers and Lakes : Rivers: Elbe, Vltava, Morava, Lužice. Ohře, Sázava, Berounka, Oder. Lakes: district of Southern Bohemia, dams along the rivers - Orlík, Slapy, Vranov, Lipno.
The Head of state is The President (currently Václav Havel), the executive power is in hands of The Prime Minister (Miloš Zeman) and his Cabinet. The legislative power belongs to the Parliament of two chambers - the Senate and the House of Commons. Main political parties are : Civil Democrats, Social Democrats, Communists, Union of Liberty, Christian Democrats.
- Animal breed : Mainly raising cattle (milk and beef c.), pigs, poultry. Goats, sheep and horses are rare.
- Growing agricultural plants : fruit and vegetables, mostly potatoes; crops (wheat, barley), hops.
Metallurgy, heavy, mining and chemical industry is very traditional. Quite common is also food, textile and electromechanical industry. Czech Republic is famous for its porcelain and glass. Main coal mining areas are in Most Basin, Kladno Basin and District of Ostrava. Main industrial zones are in Prague, Northern Bohemia and Northern Moravia.
- Slavonic tribes came to Central Europe in 5th century
- First state form was founded temporarily in 623 or 624 by Sámo
- First lasting state here was the Empire of Great Moravia in 9th century
- Přemyslid dynasty took control in 10th century
- Czech Lands became Monarchy in 12th century
- During the reign of Charles IV Prague became one of the Europe s metropolises, Charles University and Charles Bridge was built in 1348.
- Not long after his dead the famous Husite Revolution happened.
- Czech Kingdom got under the domination of Habsburgs and stayed there until 1918
- 1618-1648 - Thirty-years-war - after: germanization, re-catholicization, destroying Czech language and culture
- National Revival occurred from cca. 1870 - 19th century
- 1928 - the end of the WW I - the founding of Czechoslovakia, first President was T.G. Masaryk
- 1938-1945 - WW II - Bohemia and Moravia was part of Nazi Germany as Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren
- 1948 - Communists took control
- 1968 - invasion of Soviet Army - normalisation
- 17th November 1989 - the Velvet Revolution - defeat of Communistic regime
- 1st January 1993 - Czechoslovakia was divided into two independent countries - Czech and Slovak Republic