maturitní otázky, seminárky a referáty
Angličtina - The United States Of America 2004
Autor: Simona Kališová
America has more than 250 million inhabitants. In the west, there are Rocky Mountains. Niagara falls and 5 Great Lakes (Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan and Superior) are situated on the south – eastern Canadian border. The Mississippi is the most famous American river. Its name is of Indian origin and means „great water“.
American National Parks are visited by millions people. The first National Park was Yellowstone. Another River, located in the state of Arizone.
The USA has many kinds of climate. The differences are extreme. The Pacific Coast is relatively cold with heavy snowfalls in winter.
Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492 and met the native Americans (Indians) there. Settlement by Europeans was slaw. The first English colony was founded in Virginia in 1607.
In the 18th century there were thirteen colonies along the Atlantic Coast which were under British rule. West of these was French territory extented to the Rocky Mountains. This territory was called New France. There were wars between two rivals – the British and the French – which lasted for many years and cost Britain great sums of money.
In July 4, 1776, the representatives of the original thirteen colonists adopted and George Washington was elected as the first President of the USA.
In the 19th century more then ten million new settlers arried from Europe(English, Irish, Scottis, Germans)
In the 20th century emmigration continued and the largest number of immigrants has come from Latin America , especially Mexico and Asia, Vietnam, Korea and China. World War II. Brought many Jewish refugees.
In 1945 the USA was the strongest country in the world. Its money and atomic bombs became dangerous fot the Soviet Union.
The Cold war between the two countries began the most important events of this war were the birth of NATO in 1949 (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and alliance of Western Europe. Cold war ended in 1989 with the collaps of communism.
The political system
The USA i a federal republic which consists of fifty states and the District of Columbia (D.C.)
Each state is different from the others : it has its own state government, laws, customs, education, taxes, traffic, regulatoins etc.
The system of government
Each state government has the Constitution. The Constitution sets the basic form of government three separate branches.
1, Executive (President)
2, Legislative (Congress)
3, Judical (Supreme
The head of the federal government is the President. His power is wider than of the Prime Minister.He is elected ecery four years. The president is chosen by direct election.
America has a two – party systém: The Democrats Congress consists of the Senate and the Republicans the House of Representatives. There are 100 Senators, two of each state and 435 members of the House of Representatives.
A Senator is elected for six years, a Representative for two years.
The American flag and another anthem
The Stars and Stripes was adopted as national flag in 1777. Today, 50 white stars symbolize 50 American states, 6 white and 7 red stripes represent the original 13 states. The American anthem was written in 1814.
Life in the USA
A typical American family lives in a detached house with a garden and two cars in their garage.
The most attractive vacation areas are Yellowstone, the Grand Canyon, South Dakota´s Mt. Rushmore, Washington, Jefferson, Rooswelt and Lincoln).
Disneyland near Los Angelos and Disney World in Florida near Orladno.
Washington (D.C.) is the capital and was built on a ten-mile square territory. It has population of about 700 000 inhabitants. Washington is the U.S. legislative, administrative, and judical centre. Its government buildings, museums and many other attractions make it one of the most visited cities in the USA. Starting from Capitol streets have the numbers 1, 2, 3, (and east – west street are named A, B, C,…)
The U.S. Capitol is the seat of the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The Washington Monument is the city´s most famous landmark. It is dedicated to the memory of the first American President.
The Jefferson Memorial honors Thomas Jefferson the third President.
The Lincoln Memorial was built in honor of the 16th President. It is in the classic style of a Greek temple. There are 36 columns because 36 states existed when Lincoln died.
The white House has been the residnece of every American President excepe George Washington.