maturitní otázky, seminárky a referáty
Angličtina - The Czech republic II.
Autor: Tomáš Vostrý
Situation: Czech republic is situated in the middle of Europe, we can say, that our republic lies in the heart of Europe. Our republic borders with Germany in the west, with Poland in the north, with Slovakia in the east and with Austria in the south. Czech republic consists from three historical parts: Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia.
The surface: Czech republic has various surface, mountains create natural borders with our neighbours: so there are the Giant Mountains with the highest peak Snezka (1602 m), next are the Sumava range, Czech forest, the Ore mountains, the Jizerske mountains, the Eagle mountains the Beskydy, the Jesenik and the Karpatien. Bohemia and Moravia are separate by Bohemian-Moravian highlands. Lowlands are along rivers Vltava, Elbe and Dyje. Rivers in Czech republic belong to three seas: Vltava and Elbe to the North Sea, the Oder to the Baltic Sea and Morava, which discharges to Danube and after that to the Black Sea. The largest waterway is in the Elbe, we can travel to Germany to Hamburg, on the Vltava are dams, which are used for energy (Orlik, Slapy, Vrany, Lipno). This places are used for recreation.
The climate: Our republic lies in temperate zone, we have 4 seasons of years. The warmest places are in southern Moravia and the coldest are in the Giant Mountains. Southern Moravia is thanks to own climate the most fertile part of Czech republic, there are fertile lowlands along river Dyje.
Population: Czech republic is home for 10,2 mil. inhabitants. Most of them are Czech origin, so we can say, that Czech republic is one nation state. But there live one big national minority Slovaks. The biggest city is Prague (1,2 mil inh.), it is the capital city too and seat of government and president. It is most seightseeing city. Next two big towns are in Moravia, Brno (500 thousands) – the center of Moravia and Ostrava – new town, which was built during second half of 20th century is called Steel heart of Czech republic. Plzen in west Bohemia is the fourth largest town in our country, it is center of engineering and world famous for beer production. Ceske Budejovice – center of south Bohemia is historical town, world famous for beer production too.
Economy: Economy in Czech republic is been changing for 13 years. We had to change basic economic system. We transformed from heavy industry to engineering and electronics production, important position has chemical industry – petrol and oil products. Czech republic had large resources of coal especially Ostrava coal minds and coal minds around Most, Sokolov, Kladno dominated for big coal production. But after economic changes these areas were not important, so many of them were closed and a plenty of people lost their job. In this time are most important industry branches car building – Skoda automobile in Mlada Boleslav, and chemical industry in Litvinov, Kralupy nad Vltavou, Neratovice. Engineering industry is in Plzen, Brno, Liberec. Textile industry: Pisek, Prostejov glass industry with long tradition in Jablonec.
Natural resources: Czech republic has quite rich resources coal, black coal, lignit, iron, caolin and metals.
Agriculture: Agriculture in our republic has long tradition and ground is intensive cultivated. We produce wheat, sugar wheat, corn, barley, hop, grapes and cattle-breeding, pig-breeding.
Beauty spots: Bohemia and Moravia are quite rich in natural springs, so we have a lot of spas. Well-knows are Karlovy Vary – there is held famous film festival every year, Frantiskovy Lazne, Marianske Lazne, Jachymov, Podebrady, Luhacovice, Jeseniky and so on. Next attractive places for tourist are Czech paradise, The Decins walls, Czech Switzerland with remarkable sandstones, Moravian karst and Macocha abyss, Prachov Rock Town. Some areas in Czech republic are protected: The Boubin Virgin Forest, national parks in Sumava range. Very popular tourist attractions are Czech castles or ruins and: Karlstejn, Konopiste, Zvikov, Hluboka nad Vltavou and so on.
Political system: System of government has three main parts: legislative – parliament, the executive – by president and government, and judical – by courts, supreme courts. Czech parliament is divided into two parts – chamber of deputies – 200 members, which were voted for 4 years and The Senate – 81 members voted for 2, 4 or 6 years. Every 2 years is renewed one-third of Senate. Head of our republic is president. He is elected every five year by parliament and he can be voted two-time. President is leader of our army power, he represents our state abroad, he presented new professors and he has right Veto, so he can return some law. We have plural political system: Civic Democratic Party, Civic Democratic Union Christian Party, Social Democratic Party, Left Block, Czech-Moravian Communist Party, Green Party.
Government has about 12 members, each minister has own resort such as interior, foreign affairs, defense, justice, industry, transport.
Our anthem is called Kde domov muj (Where is my home) created by J.K.Tyl and Frantisek Skroup. Our flag is created by three colours, blue gore, and red below strike and white strike.
History: First type of state on our area was The Samo’s empire from 7th century. Samo was a French merchant. Second state was Big-Moravian imperium in 9th century and after that can we find first mention about Premyslic king dynasty, who ruled to 14th century. Next dynasty was Lucemburks with the most famous king Charles IV. During his reign Czech countries became rich and strong monarchy. It was time of progress, which ended in 15th century, when in our country ran religions conflicts. John Hus demonstrated against church and he was burnt in 1415 near Konstanz. From 16th to 20th century were Czech countries part of Austrian empire, we have Austrian kings, Austrian legislatives and German was an offical language. After first world war Czech became independent, it was established new democratic state Czechoslovakia with own president Tomas Garrigue Masaryk and own government. In year 1938 Czechoslovakia get lost and Nazi’s Germany occupied our borders areas. After second world democracy ended, in our republic was established communist system. In 1968 soviet army occupied our state to year 1989, when whole nation revolted against political system and democratic government was restored. In 1993 Czechoslovakia separated in two independent and democratic states Czech republic and Slovakia.