maturitní otázky, seminárky a referáty
Angličtina - Problems of the world (2006)
Autor: Pavla Bartoszová
Drugs are the main problem that we have to face today. The illegal drug market has become more and more profitable. At first we should know what the drug actually is. It´s any substance except food that causes changes in the body or mind. We can find drugs everywhere because many society tolerant substances are drugs too: coffee, cigarettes, alcohol or medicines that can be bought without a prescription. We have to know that legal drugs can be just as harmful as illegal if they are misused. Illegal drugs can be put into categories according to the way they affect our bodies or minds (depressants, stimullants, narcotics, hallucinogens, designer drugs, steroids, psychoactive drugs and marijuana). When somebody feel unbelievable longing for taking drug it is said that he is addicted and addict people sometimes have a withdrawal, which is a physical illness. It occurs when f. e. person wakes up and he has to get a drug immediately because he has unbearable headache and his body needs a drug. Many people start using drugs as a way to be accepted by a group, because it´s cool, it can removes stress. It can be very dangerous - everybody´s reaction differs. It depends on many factors, including health, body size, age, other drugs present in the body... The worst reaction is an overdose of drug. It´s caused by using too much of a drug and in the most of cases it can causes even death.
Homelessness is one of our daily social problems. It can be connected with drugs, because many of homeless people are drug addicted or they are alcoholics who have lost their jobs and homes because their drinking is out of control. Some of them are mentally ill with no one to take care of them. They look like very strangely, wear tattered dirty clothes, men are unshaven, have old face with wrinkles and they are carrying huge bags. They usually live beneath highway bridges, on dumps or on the dark streets in cardboard boxes. Being homeless is dangerous because they are exposed to risks as AIDS, murder, death by cold and so on. People don´t care because they detest them (panhandlers begging on the streets) and they are affraid that homeless could hurt or rob them. Fortunately there are some private groups, churches and organizations who have set up soup kitchens where the homeless can eat and shelters where they can sleep.
Emigration, especially of people from less developed countries to more developed ones, has increased and has become a very controversial topic. Many people are strongly against immigration. They believe that foreigners take jobs away from the citizens of that country and benefit from social services financed from taxes paid by the citizens of the host country. Another complaint is that more immigrants mean more crime. Some people believe that foreigners are responsible for bringing drugs into the country. And also that it corrupts the traditions and culture of a country. However there are many people who defend immigrants. For example they are forced to accept jobs which other people don´t want, but the host country exploits the immigrants for cheap labour. They also claim that immigrants are honest people who just want to have a nice life. Many are highly-educated or very talented people who could contribute a lot to the host country. If this people have legal jobs, it also means that they will pay taxes, so they aren´t dependent on state social services. When they cannot find a legal way to survive, they turn to crime. Immigrants either add to the culture of a city - cities become cosmopolitan (New York, London). Very important question is why people emigrate? Violent persecution because of their political or religious beliefs is heavy reason. Some people immigrate from economic reasons. Many industrialized nations have become rich at the expense of countries that are poor today as a result of colonisation or slavery. But some people from the host country don´t want to see foreigners get rich when some citizens of the host country are poor.
There are many religious sects all over the world. The witnesses of Jehova, the satanists, the scientologists, Hare Krishna, the Mormons… Some of them are very dangerous. Young people opened to everything can get easilly into those sects. A sect enable to weak, lonely and indecisive people escape from personal problems and it takes up decision making. First comes love, care and understanding and then is member empty of own opinions, will and blindly obeys. Manipulation and emotional extortion are common too. The leader of a sect promotes through the God his opinions and commands. Members obey without any protest, because they believe to the god. The more member turns to sect and contributes with money, the less easy is to go away.
On a black market it trades with almost everything. The relative news is the sale of human organs. It´s very lucrative business, but also inhuman. I don´t mind letting my body cut up for the science purposes after I die, but I want to have a proof that my organs will be used exactly for the right purposes. Some people carry an organ donor card, which allows doctors to take parts of their bodies if they are killed or died. It´s effective - save one life when other ends. Many people strictly criticize it and they say that it´s against human dignity. My opinion is: when it helps, why not? There is also idea to use animal organs in human beings. But it can be misused - animals will be killed and it will causes other problems.
Racism has existed since white men settled the New world and made slaves from original population. It goes on till nowadays. As racism we consider hate against „black people“, gypsi and also against people who worship some religion. For example Jews are repeatedly targets of attack. Our republic has been known in the world as the state where racism flourishes, namely against Romes and coloured people. Foreign students are being attacked, especially by skinheads.
Unemployment, poverty and famine are problems present mainly in the countries of the Third World and also in big cities as New York, L.A., Ciudad de México, Paris... The number of unemployed has still been rised. It causes many other problems - poverty, loss of the sense of life, using drugs, criminality...Especially in Africa and Asia there are many millions of people in a state of absolute poverty. Also illiteration is connected with this continent. It´s sad, but now there aren´t any solutions how to solve this problems even though they are very serious and they mostly touch the humanity. It exists some programs for helping those countries and poor, sick people living here, but there isn´t chance to help all of distressful people.
Terrorism is the greatest scare of the world. Situation changes after the 11th of September 2001 when Al-Qaeda at the head with Osama bin Laden attacks the USA. Both buildings of the WTC crash down after two aircrafts hit into them. Also Pentagon and White House were endangered. Since this event the world goes strictly against the terrorism. Especially the american president George Bush who started the war with Iraq. Many believe that the centre of a terrorism lies in the Near East and the most dangerous they consider Taleban which is based on fundamentalism - the strict following of the basic teaching of Islamic religion. But not only Taleban is responsible for all the violence. There exist about 30 thousand of nongovernmental organisations which fight for the power in the world and having their own aims of interest.
Epidemies and diseases of mankind means also great problems. New and new kinds and mutations of existed infections are borned nearly every day. The medicine isn´t able to adapt because it misses money. Flu, bird flu, SARS, plague, malaria and others are diseases which threaten us. Perhaps the biggest threat is virus HIV which causes AIDS. There are many millions of people infected and all of them are able to infect other people. This is caused by the virus, which destroys white blood cells. The body´s deffence of infected person isn´t working properly. People are more inclined to get illnesses which the body would normaly be able to fight off easily.
Globalisation should have brought progress and prosperity to the developing countries, but they have caused the break-up of social, political and cultural structures.
Solutions - everybody knows what should be done, but the main problem is, how to do it, where to get money, how to persuade people to change their habits, their way of life, minds... Many things ale clear - all the wars should be stopped and people should live in peace. Everybody should have a home, a job, an education, nobody should be hungry. There should be less stress and hate...