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Angličtina - Great Britain

Autor: Tomáš Vostrý

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Situation: Great Britain or The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the north-west part of Europe. Great Britain occupies many of islands there are between 5 thousands, so the biggest of them is Great Britain and next are for example Irish island with Northern Ireland, isle of Man between Great Britain and Ireland, Shetlands islands, Orkneys and Hebrides or Isle of Wight. Great Britain is separated of continental Europe by English Channel (Channel la Manche) on the south, western coast is dipped by the Irish sea, eastern cost by the North sea and northern part of Great Britain by the Atlantic ocean. Great Britain is the insular country, so they have any real neighbours and it has nature border lines created by sea or channel.

Basic facts: Great Britain covers more then 250 000 square kilometers and has population of about 58 millions, so density is quite high around 240 people per square kilometer, it is one the biggest in Europe. Great Britain is divided into four parts England – the biggest, Scotland, Wales – these are three historical parts and Northern Ireland, which was connected to Great Britain in year 1921 in national referendum. But there were big problems with it, because in Northern Ireland live two religions groups: one group ascribe catholic religion and second are protestants. Catholics group wanted to separate from Great Britain and situation was not optimal especially in the 70’s, when there were many terrorist attacks in Belfast. In this time is quite peace, Northern Ireland has own representatives in British Senate. Great Britain is country of one nation, more then 90 percent of people are British origin. But in this time there live many immigrants from anothers countries. They want to a British citizenship and have a use a social benefit or allowance. England has difficult political rules for immigrants.

History: First mention about Great Britain can we find in The Old Ages, when ancient Roma occupied this area, Julius Caesar led invasion about 55 years BC. From this time come first mentions about village named Londonium, which became capital city later. For next time periods was England leading state in Europe and of the world. It was always mighty monarchy with strong king. In 17th and 18th century was Great Britain state number one of the world thanks own colonies. In 20 century lost this position and many of colonies became independent state. Great Britain is a leader state of British Commonwealth Countries (group of states).

Political system: Great Britain is constitution monarchy. Head of state is queen Elizabeth II, but she has not real power. Queen is represented by Prime Minister Tony Blair from Labour party, who lives in Downing street number 10. 

The surface: Great Britain has various surface with Central lowlands on the south and with highlands on the north (Scotland). There are for example the Cornish Heights, the Cambrian in Wales, the Pennies in the central Britain, the Cambrick Highlands in Scotland and the Scottish highlands with the highest peak Ben Nevis (1342 m) and the Grampians.

Rivers: Great Britain has a lot of short and long rivers, so river network is quite dense. The most important of them are The River Thames, it flows through London, The River Mersey, it flows through Liverpool and the River Clyde or Dee in Scotland.

The climate: Great Britain lies in temperate climate zone, climate is determinated by ocean. There are not big differences in temperature between winter and summer and there is enough rainy allocation.

Towns: Capital city of Great Britain is London – it is one of the largest city of the world, it has population about 8 mil. people. It is remarkable city, where is connected old Victorian architecture style with modern and progressive style.

Liverpool is famous as a cradle of music genius called Beatles, it is old industry town with many factories and air pollution. Similar describes is used for Manchester – center of textile industry. Capital city of Wales is Cardiff – old historical town, center of industry. Capital city in Scotland is Edinburgh – tradition Scottish town and seat of kings, bigger then Edinburgh is Glasgow – industry town, center of commerce and services.

Industry: Great Britain is one of the richest country of the world and has very developed economy. During 20th century can we notice that British industry changed from heavy industry with traditional branches as shipbuilding, car and train building, engineering. In this dominate chemical industry and production of consumable electronics (televisions, radios, equipment for home).

Natural resources: Thanks to long intensive mine activities there are a little law materials. Important are coal, petrol, natural gas, gold, zinc, steel, oil, metals etc.

Agriculture: Only 2 percent of British people work in agriculture. There are important production of wheat, corn, vegetables and strawberries on south-west part. Ground is not too fertile, so for Great Britain is very important cattle breeding and production of meat.

Major partners for Great Britain are Germany, France, Netherlands and the others countries of European Union.

Sports: British love sport. Sports matches are important social events. The most popular are football – the highest football competition is called Premier League, next popular sports are tennis (Wimbledon), cricket, polo.